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Geneva Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies 

I achieved my PhD at Graduate Institute of International Studies and University of Geneva in 2001. After an assignment with the World Bank in Lithuania, I was a Research Fellow at the London School of Economics (2002-2004), Foreign Associate Researcher at the Institut d’Histoire du Temps Présent in Paris (2004-2005), Academic Fellow - Research Council United Kingdom Academic Fellow - at the School of History, University of St Andrews (2005-2010), and Swiss Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique – Research Professor (2008-2011). Associate professor (2011-2014) and full professor since 2014 at the Graduate Institute, I served as head of the International History Department (2014-2017).
My doctoral thesis was published in Italian in 2003 and in English as Fascism’s European Empire (Cambridge University Press, 2006). I was grantee of the Rockefeller Archives Centre in 2011 and grantee of the SNSF ‘Sinergia’ programme on a project entitled Patterns of Transnational Regulations. I research the history of humanitarianism, international organizations, philanthropic foundations, and international public health since the nineteenth century. In 2011 I published Against Massacre: Humanitarian Interventions in the Ottoman Empire (1815-1914), the Birth of a Concept and International Practice (Princeton University Press).
During the summer of 2012 the Kofi Annan Foundation mandated me to write a confidential report documenting the experience of the United Nations and League of Arab States Joint Special Envoy for Syria. In the mid 2010s I co-edited and authored a volume on the History of Humanitarian Photography, a volume on Transnational Networks of Experts in the Long Nineteenth Century,  another on the League of Nations’ Social Work, and, more recently, Sovereignty, Nationalism and the Quest for Homogeneity in Interwar Europe. My latest monograph is entitled: Night on Earth – A History of International Humanitarianism in the Near East (1918-1930), (Cambridge University Press, 2021).
From 2017 to 2022 I was the principal investigator of an SNSF project entitled The Myth of Homogeneity and Minority Protection in Belgium, Italy and Spain; and of  a second project entitled the Heralds of Globalization: the Rockefeller Foundation Fellows (1910s-1970s).
Since 2019, the History of International Organizations Network Internet HION, a platform I co-funded in 2008, collaborates with I started a collaboration with the Museum of the Red Cross and co-funded a podcast start-up Utopia3 that collaborates with the Festival International et Forum des Droits Humains (FIFDH).
Since 2020, I am the Head of the Interdisciplinary Program of the Graduate Institute.  I taught for the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale of Lausanne (EPFL), for several Executive Education programmes. and, since 2016 I co-directed first and then directed a Certificate in Advanced Studies on International Advocacy and public affairs
I teach for the Graduate Institute Summer School and for the Smith College Geneva Centre (higher undergraduate level). With my colleague Prof. Mohamedou we acted as consultants for Google on a project on the history and politics of racism. Together, we also wrote a study on racist and controversial public spaces commissioned by the City of Geneva. 

‘Interventions and the Eclipse of Liberal Internationalism’, Past and Present, Viewpoint Series, 2024.

‘What International Organizations talk about when they talk about themselves and how they do it’ – Interlude, Handbook on International Research Methods, edited by Fanny Badache and others, Michigan: Michigan University Press, 2023, 262-270.

‘The Near East Relief and the American Board Commissions for Foreign Missions. Humanitarian Partnership and Divorce in the Near East (1918–1929)’,British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 2023,

Sovereignty, Nationalism, and the Quest for Homogeneity in Interwar Europe, co-edited with Emmanuel Dalle Mulle and Mona Bieling (New York: Bloomsbury, 2023)

Night on Earth. A History of International Humanitarianism in the Near East, 1918-1930, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021).


‘What Riding an Old Triumph Motorcycle Taught Me About International Societies, Academic ‘Turns’ and Dead-Ends, H-Diplo Roundtable Review of Erez Manela, International Society as a Historical Subject, Diplomatic History, 44, 2, 2020, 184-209.


‘Relief and Reconstructive humanitarian work of the American Red Cross in Jerusalem and Palestine 1917-1919’, Journal of Migration History Special issue Refugeedom and the Making of the Middle East, 6, 2020, 16-39.

Certainty, Compassion and the Ingrained Arrogance of Humanitarians, Manchester University Press, 2020, 27-44.


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